Tarcisio Dias - Mecânica Online

Fique esperto nas dicas com os pneus, rodas, suspensão e freios

A sua coluna Mecânica Online® vai abordar mais aspectos mecânicos com dicas e informações importantes sobre os pneus, rodas, suspensão e freios

Os pneus possuem como finalidade calçar e suportar a carga do veículo, proporcionando segurança e conforto. Para cada veículo há um tipo de pneu apropriado. Isso evita má aderência e proporciona conforto e resistência ao transporte de carga e passageiros.

Desgaste – O pneu deverá ter sulcos de, no mínimo, 1,6 milímetros de profundidade. A função dos sulcos é permitir o escoamento de água para garantir a perfeita aderência ao piso e a segurança, em caso de piso molhado;

Deformações na carcaça – Veja se os pneus não têm bolhas ou cortes;

Dimensões irregulares – Não use pneus de modelo ou dimensões diferentes das recomendadas pelo fabricante para não reduzir a estabilidade e desgastar os outros componentes da suspensão;

Rodas – Um problema no rolamento lembra o barulho de uma turbina de avião e ocorre de acordo com a velocidade;

Balanceamento das Rodas – Vibração forte no volante que aumenta de acordo com a velocidade, atinge um pico e diminui conforme o veiculo vai rodando mais rápido;

Pneu cantando – Ocorre porque a geometria da suspensão está errada e necessita de alinhamento. Se o pneu canta facilmente em manobras curtas e curvas lentas, vai se desgastar muito cedo;

MANUTENÇÃO

• Calibre semanalmente, com os pneus frios e de acordo com a pressão indicada pelo fabricante do seu veículo;

• Faça alinhamento e balanceamento a cada 10.000 km;

• O rodízio de pneus também deve ser feito a cada 5.000 km;

• Evite impacto com buracos ou guias e freado brusco:

• Mantenha as válvulas sempre tampadas;

• Evite excesso de carga.

CUIDADOS COM AS RODAS – Elas não devem estar tortas, amassadas, trincadas ou enferrujadas.

Para comprar as rodas, procure lojas especializadas que ofereçam garantia e orientação técnica.

BALANCEAMENTO – É o equilíbrio do conjunto pneu/roda, através de contrapesos. O desbalanceamento provoca vibrações no volante, desconforto ao dirigir, perda de tração e estabilidade, dificuldade em manter o veículo na trajetória, desgastes prematuros dos rolamentos, amortecedores, terminais de direção e desgastes prematuros dos pneus.

Quando balancear?

• A cada 10.000 km, ou quando sentir vibração no volante.

• Ao desmontar o pneu do aro.

DICA – Calibrar os pneus semanalmente.

ALINHAMENTO – É a regulagem da posição das rodas, ajustadas em determinados valores para garantir conforto, segurança e estabilidade ao dirigir.

Necessidade de realizar o alinhamento das rodas:

• Desgastes prematuros das peças. Folgas.

• Desgastes irregulares e prematuros dos pneus.

• Estacionar apoiando rodas na guia.

• Pancadas na roda causada por buracos.

• Constantes trepidações em pavimentos irregulares.

• Sensibilidade ao dirigir.

SUSPENSÃO – Seu objetivo é controlar a estabilidade, trepidação e flutuação causadas pelo contato do conjunto pneus/rodas com o solo.

Sem as peças fundamentais como amortecedores e molas não seriam possíveis amenizar o impacto das rodas com o solo, transmitindo desconfortos aos ocupantes do carro.

Quando gastos, podem causar e perda de controle do veículo e seu capotamento, especialmente em curvas e nas frenagens.

DICA: se o barulho for seco e constante em pisos irregulares, como terra batida e paralelepípedo, pode ser mau funcionamento de algum elemento isolante entre os materiais metálicos. Pode afetar a geometria da suspensão e provocar o desgaste excessivo dos pneus.

AMORTECEDORES – O amortecedor auxilia o trabalho das molas, limitando suas oscilações, reduzindo e impedindo as trepidações.

Problemas causados por amortecedores em mau estado:

• Saltos descontrolados das rodas;

• Desgastes irregulares dos pneus;

• Desgastes prematuros das peças da suspensão;

• Perigo ao frear;

Molas – A mola é o componente da suspensão que sustenta todo o peso do veículo.

Problemas:

• Danos ao amortecedor e demais peças da suspensão;

• Desgastes prematuros dos pneus;

• Falta de estabilidade do veículo;

• Menor segurança.

Obs.: As molas são trocadas aos pares.

Freios – É um sistema que tem por finalidade controlar a moderação da velocidade, a parada e a imobilização do veículo quando estacionado. O sistema de freios é uma das partes vitais do veículo. Devidamente conservado e ajustado, garante uma frenagem segura sob as mais diversas condições de tráfego.

Nos veículos com sistema ABS (central eletrônica que recebe sinais provenientes das rodas e gerencia a pressão no cilindro e no comando dos freios, evitando o bloqueio das rodas) verifique no painel, a luz indicativa de problemas no funcionamento.

Os principais componentes do sistema de freios são: sistema hidráulico, fluido, discos e pastilhas ou lonas, dependendo do tipo de veículo.

Veja as principais razões de perda de eficiência e como inspecionar:

• Nível de fluído baixo: é só observar o nível do reservatório;

• Vazamento de fluído: observe a existência de manchas no piso, sob o veículo;

• Disco e pastilhas gastos: Verifique com um profissional habilitado;

• Lonas gastas: Verifique com um profissional habilitado;

Cuidados e manutenção – Verifique regularmente o nível do fluído de freio no reservatório/Pastilhas de freio. Lembre-se o tempo de troca, é uma vez ao ano.

DICA – Um ruído bem agudo indica pastilhas de má qualidade. Um ruído de baixa frequência indica fim das pastilhas. Quando os elementos de atrito estão no fim, sua troca é necessária para evitar danos nos discos.

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