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Tecnologia digital, conectividade, dados na nuvem, Big Data e Internet das Coisas: os pilares da Indústria 4.0 na prática

Continuamos o assunto iniciado na coluna passada sobre a Indústria 4.0 e a relação entre o trabalho das máquinas e os seres humanos, na busca por soluções colaborativas. Foram duas visitas que permitiram conhecer “in-loco” a evolução da indústria brasileira no tocante a produção de veículos e caminhões.

Estive em Betim, Minas Gerais, para conhecer a evolução dos processos na busca pelo aumento da qualidade e competitividade no Polo Automotivo Fiat, destacados na coluna do dia 10 de março.

Depois foi a vez da fábrica da Mercedes-Benz para conhecer na prática a tecnologia digital, conectividade, dados na nuvem, Big Data e Internet das Coisas que já estão presentes na Linha de Cabinas na fábrica de São Bernardo do Campo, em São Paulo, que vamos abordar com mais detalhes agora.

A Indústria 4.0 nada mais é que a 4ª Revolução Industrial.

Temos um conjunto de tecnologias que se beneficiam da redução dos limites ou barreiras entre as pessoas e os mundos digital e físico, permitindo que as máquinas e os seres humanos trabalhem e se comuniquem de maneira colaborativa, o que promove a eficiência, minimiza a ociosidade e o desperdício, além de possibilitar a criação de processos e mercados.

Ela chegou para ficar. Essas mudanças foram impulsionadas pelo acesso maciço da sociedade ao mundo digital, que passou a influenciar todos os mercados.

No contexto da Indústria 4.0, esse conjunto de tecnologias, chamadas habilitadoras, possibilita que as linhas de produção sejam ágeis e atendam o consumidor final de maneira personalizada, sem prejudicar sua produtividade.

Do ponto de vista do consumidor, a Indústria 4.0 adequa sua linha de produção para a customização em massa com bens ou produtos que atendam aos desejos e necessidades de cada consumidor, com custos semelhantes aos dos produtos não customizados e com prazo de entrega relativamente curto.

É uma nova indústria automotiva que nasce conectada a sistemas como Internet das Coisas, Realidade Aumentada, Big Data, entre outras soluções.

Outro diferencial desse modelo, agora do ponto de vista da empresa, é a rastreabilidade que possibilita acompanhar um produto, desde a fabricação até a entrega ao consumidor.
Permite, ainda, que a empresa analise o comportamento dos produtos durante o uso pelo consumidor e implemente, automaticamente, melhorias decorrentes desta análise, por meio de um processo ágil.

Os pilares da quarta revolução industrial já estão presentes na Linha de Cabinas de caminhões da fábrica da Mercedes-Benz de São Bernardo do Campo (SP).

“Há pouco menos de um ano, inauguramos nesta planta a nova Linha de Montagem de Caminhões, trazendo grande impacto para o setor de veículos comerciais no País, com a implantação pioneira e efetiva de conceitos da Indústria 4.0”, ressalta Philipp Schiemer, presidente da Mercedes-Benz do Brasil e CEO América Latina.

“Agora, com a Linha de Cabinas, estamos dando mais um passo histórico e decisivo, que terá continuidade, porque iremos avançar para a produção de agregados, como motores, câmbios e eixos, e também de chassis de ônibus”.

Com um novo ambiente de trabalho na produção de cabinas, a Mercedes-Benz projeta ganhos de 15% em eficiência e 20% em logística em relação a processos anteriores. Para tanto, além de tecnologias, processos e recursos avançados, a nova Indústria 4.0 que cresce cada vez mais dentro na Empresa também dedica atenção muito especial aos colaboradores.

A nova Linha de Cabinas 4.0 vem desenvolvendo e testando, por exemplo, o uso de avançadas soluções – inéditas na Empresa, na Daimler Trucks e em veículos comerciais no País – como óculos de realidade aumentada, robô colaborativo e exoesqueleto, ferramentas inovadoras para uma nova realidade nas linhas de produção. Essas tecnologias trazem ganhos importantes de ergonomia, qualidade de vida e segurança no ambiente de trabalho para os colaboradores.

“Com a nova Linha de Cabinas, seguimos entregando investimentos no Brasil, dentro do aporte de R$ 2,4 bilhões programado entre 2018 e 2022”, informa Philipp Schiemer. “Ou seja, a Mercedes-Benz segue confiando no potencial do mercado brasileiro”.

Uma nova era da interação entre homens e a tecnologia – A nova Linha de Montagem de Caminhões da Mercedes-Benz inicia uma nova era da interação entre homens e tecnologia.

Os colaboradores estão no seu comando na Indústria 4.0, assegurando altos padrões de qualidade, produtividade e flexibilidade para atendimento aos clientes.

“A Linha de Cabinas também é resultado do aprimoramento do processo ergonômico nas células de trabalho e do investimento contínuo na qualidade de vida dos colaboradores, com participação da área de Medicina e Segurança do Trabalho”, diz Carlos Santiago, vice-presidente de Operações da Mercedes-Benz do Brasil.

“Nosso foco é a evolução do ambiente de trabalho, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento das equipes”.

O diversificado universo de equipamentos, ferramentas e tecnologias de última geração está totalmente conectado na atual Linha de Cabinas. A alta tecnologia aplicada por toda linha permite disponibilizar dados em tempo real para diversas áreas da fábrica.

Um App permite acompanhar 100% da produção pelo celular e de qualquer lugar. Essa ferramenta tem interface com a planta de Juiz de Fora (MG), em que ocorre a pintura das cabinas, e com diversas áreas de São Bernardo do Campo.

Dados gerados por equipamentos como as apertadeiras eletrônicas, robôs e AGVs (Automatic Guided Vehicle ou Veículo Guiado Automaticamente) são armazenados em um Data Lake e alimentam sistemas de inteligência artificial e Big Data.

Utilizando recursos de Analytics, pode-se monitorar a qualidade de todos os produtos, detectar falhas e até fazer uma correlação com as informações de Vendas, flexibilizando o mix de produção.

Realidade aumentada é pioneira na produção de caminhões – O uso da realidade aumentada é uma iniciativa pioneira na Mercedes-Benz do Brasil e na Daimler Trucks.

Com testes ao longo de 2018, está sendo utilizada, a partir deste ano, no início do processo de montagem inferior da cabina para manutenção preventiva.

O óculos de Realidade Aumentada possibilita visualizar imagens com parâmetros e informações dos sensores de um determinado equipamento ou do processo produtivo.

Permite ao operador ou inspetor que atue de forma rápida e com as mãos livres, tendo o suporte de áudio, vídeo e outros documentos que auxiliam o processo de manutenção, garantindo redução no tempo de atendimento e qualidade na execução da tarefa.

Robô auxilia os operadores em ações repetitivas – O robô colaborativo trabalha em total sintonia com os operadores, aliviando esforços em atividades repetitivas, contribuindo para maior assertividade e qualidade. Na Mercedes-Benz do Brasil, o primeiro robô colaborativo atua na montagem da chave geral do caminhão.

De braço duplo e mãos flexíveis, o robô colaborativo manuseia qualquer objeto, com alto nível de precisão. Graças a seu design compacto e ao controle preciso, não exige barreiras, gaiolas ou grades para utilização, nem zonas restritas de uso, garantindo a segurança dos colaboradores e das pessoas à sua volta.

Exoesqueleto, novidade que privilegia a ergonomia dos colaboradores – Agregando mais novidades à Linha de Cabinas, o exoesqueleto é uma evolução do posto de trabalho com foco na ergonomia, saúde ocupacional e segurança para os colaboradores.

Já são mais de três meses de estudos e testes, realizados em parceria com a Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo – Poli-USP em um laboratório montado dentro da própria Empresa. Esta solução moderna e avançada é inédita na montagem de cabinas no País e na Mercedes-Benz do Brasil.

O exoesqueleto é uma estrutura de suporte ao colaborador projetada ergonomicamente para ajudar nas realizações de movimentos repetitivos. Conforme o modelo, pode diminuir esforços nos ombros, coluna, quadril e pernas. Não aumenta a força do colaborador, mas reduz a fadiga muscular e o risco de lesões.

Tecnologias avançadas ganham evidência na nova Linha de Cabinas
· AGV (Automatic Guided Vehicle ou Veículo Guiado Automaticamente)
· AIV (Autonomous Intelligent Vehicle ou Veículo Autônomo Inteligente)
· Transelevadores
· EOM (Electrical Overhead Monorail), sistema de transporte aéreo
· Elevadores automáticos
· Célula robotizada
· Novas botoeiras
· Monitores touch screen de tela ampla.

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